An Asthma Attack Caused by a Thunderstorm (McGill OSS)

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On November 21st, 2016 a thunderstorm swept across Melbourne, Australia. It brought with it the usual flooded basements, wet shoes and ruined picnics, but it also brought a strange outbreak of asthma. Asthmatics and non-asthmatics alike suddenly found themselves unable to catch their breath, coughing and in extreme cases not being able to breathe at all. By the time the storm had passed, there was a 672% increase in respiratory-related presentations to emergency departments and a 992% increase in asthma-related admissions to hospital. The storm contributed to the death of at least 10 people.

So what was it about this thunderstorm that spurred a city-wide asthma attack? Experts aren’t certain, but the best guess is pollen. It seems that polled, mould and other allergens can get picked up into a storm, riding on wind currents, and carried into the clouds. Up in the sky, they make contact with water molecules, which causes these allergens to break apart into microscopic particles that can more readily enter human lungs and cause reactions. 
In the case of Melbourne, the allergen of importance seems to be from ryegrass. A grain of ryegrass pollen can be broken down into 700 starch granules, measuring 0.6 to 2.5 μm, which may then be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lungs, and cause an asthma attack or an allergic reaction.

As roughly 20% of the world is sensitive to grass or tree pollens, you can imagine that these storms are quite bothersome to many. Melbourne wasn’t the first case of casualties due to storm inflicted asthma, and it sadly will probably not be the last. 

Article originally posted here:

Turtles Breathe Out of Their Butt

Originally published here:

Technically the term is cloacal respiration, and it’s not so much breathing as just diffusing oxygen in and carbon dioxide out, but the fact remains: when turtles hibernate, their main source of oxygen is through their butt.

As cold-blooded animals, when the temperature drops in the winter, a turtle’s internal temperature drops with it, and its metabolism slows down to match. While they are in this slowed-metabolism hibernation period, their oxygen needs are quite low, and the oxygen diffused from the water running over them is enough to sustain them until spring. If times get really tough, they can always switch to anaerobic respiration: powering their metabolism without oxygen, but this mode comes with a time limit due to the buildup of a respiratory byproduct, lactic acid.

This breathing process is fairly common amongst amphibians and reptiles and is properly called cutaneous respiration. Besides the turtle butt-breathers, notable users of cutaneous respiration include frogs, salamanders and sea snakes.